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2012-12-16

vim cheat sheet

   # how-to start vim in the shell 
   vim -o /path/to/file1 /path/to/file2
   # press Esc, press w to save the file ,q to quit
   wq!
   #how-to get help in vim 
   :help 
   #how-to search or jump to 
   /itemToSearchInTheText --- works without the colon also 
   #how-to navigate in the text
   # enter normal mode first 
   Esc
   # how-to go one line below
   j
   # how-to go one line up 
   k 
   # how-to go one character left in normal mode  
   l
   # how-to go one character right in normal mode
   h
   # how-to backward a word in normal mode 
   B
   # how-to foward a word in normal mode 
   e
   # how-to go the begining of the document in normal mode
   gg
   # how-to go the end of the document 
   G
   # how-to jump to line number xxx ( for example 495 ) 
   495G 
   # how-to jump back from where you were in the previous time
   ' -(Press ' twice ) jump back to line (where you came from) 
   #
   Ctrl + O --- Ctrl + I --- e - 0 To the beginning of a line.
   $ To the end of a line.
   b To the beginning of a word.
   :/tokenToSearch n - N 
   :%s/search_for_this/replace_with_this/c   - confirm each replace
   :?tokenToSearch n - Ctrl + o - Ctrl + i - N - 
 
   [](){} %
 
   Deleting 
   dd or :d Delete the current line.
 
   # how-to select text and copy paste
   # first enter into visual mode 
   Esc,v 
   # navigate within the text with the navigation keys ( see above ) 
 
   # than yank the selected into the buffer ( Ctrl + C in Windows - copy to clipboard ) 
   y 
   # or to cut it after the selection with 
   d 
   yy or :y or Y Yank the current line. You don't need to highlight it first.
   u Undo the last action
   Esc to run into the normal mode 
   p - to paste
 
 
   Find and replace 
   :%s/foo/bar/g Replace every occurrence of the word foo with bar in the whole file.
 
   :%s/^.*clear$\n//gi --- remove all the lines containing the string "clear" 
 
   Find/Replace: 
   Example: 
   :%s/fff/rrrrr/g - For all lines in a file, find string "fff" and replace with string "rrrrr" for each instance on a line. 
   :%s/fff/rrrrr/gc - For all lines in a file, find string "fff" and replace with string "rrrrr" for each instance on a line. Ask for confirmation 
   :'a,'bs/fff/rrrrr/gi - For all lines between line marked "a" (ma) and line marked "b" (mb), find string "fff" and replace with string "rrrrr" for each instance on a line. Case insensitive. 
   :%s/*$/ - For all lines in a file, delete blank spaces at end of line. 
   :%s/\(.*\):\(.*\)/\2:\1/g - For all lines in a file, move last field delimited by ":" to the first field. Swap fields if only two. 
   For more info type: 
   :help substitute 
   :help pattern 
   :help gdefault 
   :help cmdline-ranges
 
 
   where vim sets the settings of the "sessions" 
 
   vim /root/.viminfo
 
   vim /home/sysadmin/.viminfo
 
   vim /home/nortel/.viminfo
 
   How to edit the colors of the current color scheme: 
 
   1. Check the name of your current color scheme located at: /root/.vimrc or /home/usrname/.vimrc (attention come kind of aliasing ... )
 
   set colorsheme=dark
   :colorscheme elflord
 
 
   2. Edit the current colorsheme 
 
   /usr/share/vim/vim63/colors/darkblue.vim
 
   /comments
 
   3. Pick a HEX number for the color of the comments you would prefer to have .. #40FF00 (google color table )
 
   Ctrl-R Ctrl-F Enters the file under the cursor into the editor in you commend line (normal mode).
 
   Ctrl-R Ctrl-A Enters the text from the editor in you commend line (normal mode).
 
   Mappings 
 
   the keyboard shortcuts performing user defined commands which could be saved at the /etc/vimrc
 
   map <C-Tab> :bn!<CR> ---- Ctrl + Tab for switching to the next buffer
 
   map <f4> :bn! <CR> :bd #<CR> --- Ctrl + F4 - for closing the current buffer
 
   As most other *nix applications, you can also pause Vim with Ctrl-z, which will drop you back to the shell. When you're finished, you can resume Vim with fg. (This is a feature of the shell, not a Vim feature.)
 
 
   Any UNIX command can be executed from the vi command line by typing an "!" before the UNIX command. 
   Examples: 
   ":!pwd" - shows your current working directory. 
   ":r !date" - reads the results from the date command into a new line following the cursor.
 
   http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialAdvanced_vi.html
 
   Working with files
 
   :bn -- switch to the next file buffer
   :bp -- switch to the previous file buffer 
 
   :ls -- list the opened file buffers
   :buffer 17 --- go to the file with number 17 listed in the previous command
 
   Go to line 10 :10
   Redo Ctrl+R 
 
   gf -- open the file under the cursor in Normal mode
 
   :bd --- close the current file buffer
 
   :e /var/tmp.txt open new buffer (and window ) with the /var/tmp.txt file 
 
   :new /path/to/the/file/to/open in 
 
   set winheight=90 (also could be added to /etc/vimrc
 
   vim *.pl --- open all Perl scripts in the current directory
 
   :cnext :bn -- go to the next buffer
 
   :ls list all the buffers
 
   :bn 3 -- go the nubmer of the buffer listed from the previous command 
 
   to Quit VIM :q
 
   to delete the line in the executable mode – dd
 
   :split /usr/share/some.file --- opens a new file in a new window
 
   :e /usr/share --- opens a directory (in a new buffer , no windows to mess around ) 
 
   :w filename Save changes to a file. If you don't specify a file name, Vim saves as the file name you were editing. For saving the file under a different name, specify the file name.
 
   :wq Write the file and exit.
 
   :q! exit without saving (the hyphen meaning is the same for all commands )
 
   : start folding 
   select block, then :fold
   zo - open
   zc - close
   : stop folding

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