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2009-10-28

Nix Cheat Sheet

echo PORTABLE *NIX CHEAT SHEET COPY PASTE AT YOUR COMMAND PROMPT
echo AND USE BY history | grep "a word"

echo how-to script --- script -a /export/home/yogeorgi/SCRIPTSLOGS/`date +%Y%m%d%H%M%S`_script.log

echo if the man is full of references to files --- man commandToFindHelpAbout | col -b >/var/man/mancommandToFindHelpAbout.man.txt
vim .bashrc
echo´'
alias ls="ls -a -l -X -1 --color=tty"
alias dir="ls -ba"
alias cls="clear"
alias deltree="rm -r"
alias move="mv"
ls -al | more
'

echo take the last 5 commands for faster execution to the temp execution script --- tail -n 5 /root/.bash_history >> /var/run.sh

echo I saw the command cd /to/some/suching/dir/which/was/very/long/to/type so I redid it and saved my fingers --- '!345'


echo send that file to myself --- cat history.txt | mail -s "test file sending" -c mail1@com yordan.georgiev(boom)gmail.com


echo how-to display the history withouth the line numbers ... --- history | perl -i -pe 's/^([ ]*)([0-9]*)(.*)$/$3/gi'

echo how-to deal with command outputs --- command | filtercommand > command_output.txt 2>errors_from_command.txt

echo find the files in the /bin folder having the "trace" string in their name --- find /bin | grep "trace"

echo find all xml type of files and display only the rows having wordToFindInRow --- find . -name '*.xml' -exec cat {} \;| grep wordToFindInRow | less

echo find and replace recursively --- find . -name '*.html' -print0 | xargs -0 perl -pi -e 's/foo/bar/g'


how-to putty go to the beginning of the current line --- Ctrl + A
how-to putty Go to the end of the line you are currently typing on -- Ctrl + E
how-to putty go to the beginning of line --- Ctlr + A -
how-to putty go to the end of line --- Ctrl + E
how-to putty delete a word --- Ctrl + W
how-to putty go forwared --- Alt + f - Move forward
how-to putty move backwards -- Alt + B - move backwords
how-to putty delete backwards from cursors --- Alt + BackSpace
how-to putty browse command history backwords --- down arrow
how-to putty browse command history upwards up arrow -
how-to putty recall command --- Ctrl + R
how-to putty Suspend/ Stop the commandCtrl + z -
how-to putty Clear the screen --- Ctrl + l




echo display the first 20 lines of the file --- head -n 20 tooLongFile --

echo get nice prompt
vim /etc/bashrc
PS1="\u@\h \t \w\n\\$ "

echo how to restart a process initiated at startup
/etc/rc.d/init.d/sendmail start | stop | status | restart

echo see all the rules associated with the firewall
iptables -L -v
gunzip *file.zip
tar -xvf file.tar
To access the server download winscp.exe:

echo start winscp with a stored session
winscp oracle@192.168.255.12

echo To start remote session click on the putty screen , configure putty settings to pull full screen with alt + Enter
echo right click on the title bar , settings , change the font , copy paste from and to the terminal window text

echo how-to ensure the sshd daemon is running --- ps -ef | grep sshd

echo User and group management
useradd -p winscppass -r winscp -d /home/winscp --- to add a user with specifig home directory name and pass
luserdel winscp --- delete the user
gpasswd: administer the /etc/group file
groupadd: Create a new group
groupmod: Modify a group
groupdel: Delete a new group
useradd: Create a new user or update default new user information
usermod: Modify a user account
userdel: Delete a user account and related files

echo how to kill process interactively
killall -v -i sshd

echo disk usage of users under the /home directory
du --max-depth=1 /home | sort -n -r

echo the most efficent way to search your history is to hit Ctrl R and type the start of the command. It will autocomplete as soon as there’s a match to a history entry, then you just hit enter. If you want to complete the command (add more stuff to it ) use the right arrow to escape from the quick search box ...
How to install Perl modules
gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -
perl Makefile.PL
make test
make install

echo How to see better which file were opened , which directories were visited
echo type always the fullpath after the vi - use the $PWD env variable to open files in the current directory , thus after opening the file after:
vim /$PWD , press tab to complete the name of the current directory , type the name of the file
thus after
history | grep vim

echo the full list of opened files is viwed .
echo of course the same could be seen from the /home/username/.viminfo file /files
echo where to set the colors for the terminal (if you are lucky to have one with colors; )
/etc/DIR_COLORS
open a file containing "sh" in its name bellow the "/usr/lib" directory
:r !find /usr/lib -name *sh*
go over the file and gf
uname -a --- which version of Linux I am using
rmp -qa --- show all installed packages
passwd [username] --- change the password for the specified user (own password)

echo How to copy paste text in the putty window from client to server - click the right button of your pointing device
echo How to copy paste text from the putty window from server to client - right-click the window title and select copy all to Clipboard.
To restart a service
service sshd restart
service --status-all --- show the status of all services

chown -R root:nortel Directory

echo perform action recursively on a set of files
find . -name '*.pl' -exec perl -wc {} \;

$ for file in *
> do cp $file $file.bak
> done
$ for file in `ls -R` ; do cp $file $file.bak; done

echo make Bash append rather than overwrite the history on disk:
shopt -s histappend

echo henever displaying the prompt, write the previous line to disk:
PROMPT_COMMAND='history -a'

gpm -- general "cut and paste" server
sh ScriptWithALotOfErrorMessages.sh | tee -a whereToSaveIt.log

echo run first the following command
$ script -a The_Log_File_To_Append_as_well_as_display_diagnostig_messages.log

echo than run the script
sh ScriptWithALotOfErrorMessages.sh
tr '\t' ',' < FileWithTabs > fileWithCommas
df -k --- disk usage

echo Allow access to the box from only one ip address
IPTables=/sbin/iptables
$ IPTables -A INPUT -s -p tcp --source-port xxx -j ACCEPT
$ IPTables -A OUTPUT -d < Insert other Origin ip here > -p tcp --destination-port xxx-j ACCEPT

echo has the root logged in over an unencrypted network ?
# last | grep “^root “ | egrep –v “reboot|console” | more
echo start command in the background
command1 &
echo start another one
command2 &

echo bring the command in the foreground
fg %1
echo create a backup file based on the timestamp on bash
cp fileName.ext fileName.ext.`date +%Y%m%d%H%M%S`.bak

echo who am I on this machine
id
whoami

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